Kwok, CS and Loke, Y and Welch, AA and Luben, RN and Lentjes, M and Boekholt, M and Pfister, R and Mamas, M and wareham, N and Khaw, K and Myint, PK (2016) Habitual chocolate consumption and the risk of incident heart failure among healthy men and women. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. ISSN 0939-4753

chocolate HF paper.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (406kB) | Preview


Background: We aimed to examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of incident heart failure in a UK general population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify this association. Methods and results: We used data from a prospective population-based study the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Chocolate intake was quantified based on a food frequency questionnaire obtained at baseline (1993-1997) and incident heart failure was ascertained up to March 2009. We supplemented the primary data with a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which evaluated risk of incident heart failure with chocolate consumption. A total of 20,922 participants (53% women; mean age 58±9 years) were included of whom 1,101 developed heart failure during the follow up (mean 12.5±2.7 years, total person years 262,291 years). After adjusting lifestyle and dietary factors, we found 19% relative reduction in heart failure incidence in the top (up to 100g/d) compared to the bottom quintile of chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-0.98) but the results were no longer significant after controlling for comorbidities (HR 0.87 95%CI 0.71-1.06). Additional adjustment for potential mediators did not attenuate the results further. We identified five relevant studies including the current study (N=75,408). The pooled results showed non-significant 19% relative risk reduction of heart failure incidence with higher chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-1.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher chocolate intake is not associated with subsequent incident heart failure

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Published online ahead of print 28 January 2016
Uncontrolled Keywords: heart failure; chocolate; cocoa; epidemiology; meta-analysis
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2016 10:10
Last Modified: 28 Jan 2017 01:30

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item