Jeffery, AJ, Gertisser, R ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9973-2230, O'Driscoll, B, Pacheco, JM, Whitley, S, Pimentel, A and Self, S (2016) Temporal evolution of a post-caldera, mildly peralkaline magmatic system: Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 171 (5).

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Abstract

Furnas is one of three active central volcanoes on São Miguel Island, Azores, and is considered to be one of the most hazardous in the archipelago. In this study, the pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 10 young (<5 ka), intra-caldera, sub-Plinian, trachytic eruptions of the Upper Furnas Group (UFG) is investigated via whole rock major and trace element geochemistry, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry, and petrogenetic modelling. The main aim of this work is to elucidate the petrogenesis of the Furnas trachytes, constrain the P–T–fO2 conditions under which they evolve, and investigate the temporal evolution of the magma plumbing system. Results indicate that the trachytes are derived predominantly from extended fractional crystallisation of alkali basalt parental magmas, at depths between ~3 and 4 km. This is considered to take place in a density-stratified reservoir, with alkali basalt magmas at the base and hydrous trachytes forming an upper cap or cupola. The presence of this reservoir at shallow crustal depths beneath the caldera likely inhibits the ascent and subsequent eruption of mafic magmas, generating a compositional Daly Gap. Rare syenitic ejecta represent in situ crystallisation of trachytic magmas in the thermal boundary zone at the top of the reservoir. Trachytic enclaves within these syenites, in addition to banded pumices and ubiquitous clinopyroxene antecrysts in the UFG pumice falls, provide evidence for mingling/mixing processes within the magmatic system. Despite relatively uniform major element compositions, systematic trace element variations within individual eruptions highlight the importance of fractional crystallisation during late-stage evolution of the trachytes. This is facilitated by the accumulation of water and the development of mild peralkalinity, which contribute to low pre-eruptive melt viscosities and efficient crystal settling. Compositional zoning patterns between individual eruptions cannot be accounted for by periodic tapping of a single magma batch undergoing fractional crystallisation. Instead, up to four individual cycles are recognised, in which a zoned cap of eruptible trachytic magma, formed at the top of the reservoir, was erupted in one or more eruptions and was re-established via intermittent replenishment and subsequent fractional crystallisation.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Furnas volcano, Peralkaline trachyte, Fractional crystallisation, Zoned magma reservoir, Post-caldera volcanism
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GB Physical geography
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Physical and Geographical Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2016 11:40
Last Modified: 15 Apr 2019 08:48
URI: http://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/1416

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