Hashemi Azizi, SH, Rezaee, P, Jafarzadeh, M, Meinhold, G ORCID: 0000-0001-8375-8375, Moussavi Harami, SR and Masoodi, M (2018) Early Mesozoic sedimentary‒tectonic evolution of the Central-East Iranian Microcontinent: Evidence from a provenance study of the Nakhlak Group. Chemie der Erde / Geochemistry. ISSN 0009-2819

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Abstract

In Central Iran, the mixed siliciclastic‒carbonate Nakhlak Group of Triassic age is commonly seen to have a Cimmerian affinity, although it shows considerable resemblances with the Triassic Aghdarband Group in far northeastern Iran, east of Kopeh-Dagh area, with Eurasian affinity. The Nakhlak Group is composed of the Alam (Late Olenekian‒Anisian), Baqoroq (Late Anisian‒?Early Ladinian), and Ashin (Ladinian‒?Early Carnian) formations consisting mainly of volcanoclastic sandstone and shale and fossiliferous limestone. The Baqoroq Formation contains also metamorphic detritus. Sandstone petrofacies reflect the detrital evolution from active volcanism to growing orogen and again active volcanism. Textural and modal analyses of volcanic lithic fragments from the Alam Formation reflect the eruption style and magma composition of a felsic to intermediate syn-sedimentary arc activity. The detrital modes of the Baqoroq Formation sediments suggest a recycled orogenic source followed by arc activity in a remnant fore-arc basin. The sandstone samples from the Ashin Formation demonstrate a continuity of felsic to intermediate arc activity. Major and trace element concentrations of the Nakhlak Group clastic samples support sediment supply from first-cycle material and felsic magmatic arc input. The enrichment in LREE, the negative Eu anomalies, and the flat HREE patterns indicate origination from the old upper continental crust and young arc material. The chemical index of alteration (CIA ~ 51 to 70 for sandstone and 64 to 76 for shale samples) indicates medium degrees of chemical weathering at the source. Petrographical and geochemical evidence together with facies analysis constructed the following depositional conditions for the Nakhlak Group sediments: In the Olenekian, a fore-arc shallow to deep marine depositional basin developed that later was filled by recycled and arc-related detritus and changed into a continental basin in the Anisian. Ladinian extension let to a deepening of the basin. With respect to the similarities between the Nakhlak and Aghdarband (NE Iran) groups and unusual present-day position of the Nakhlak Group with no stratigraphic connection to the surrounding area, the development of first a fore-arc basin and later change into a back-arc depositional basin in close relation with the Aghdarband basin at the southern Eurasian active margin in the Triassic are here proposed. Understanding the basin development recorded in the Nakhlak Group provides constraints on the closure history of Palaeotethys and of the tectonic evolution of early Mesozoic basins at the southern Eurasian margin before the Cimmerian Orogeny.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted author manuscript (AAM). The final published version is available online via Chemie der Erde /Geochemistry at http://www.elsevier.com/journals/chemie-der-erde-geochemistry/0009-2819. Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Triassic, Nakhlak Group, Palaeotethys, Provenance, Central Iran
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2018 10:48
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2018 15:39
URI: http://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/5069

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