Jeffery, AJ and Gertisser, R ORCID: 0000-0002-9973-2230 (2018) Peralkaline felsic magmatism of the Atlantic islands. Frontiers in Earth Science. ISSN 2296-6463

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Abstract

The oceanic-island magmatic systems of the Atlantic Ocean exhibit significant diversity in their respective sizes, ages, and the compositional ranges of their eruptive products. Nevertheless, almost all of the Atlantic islands and island groups have produced peralkaline felsic magmas, implying that similar petrogenetic regimes may be operating throughout the Atlantic Ocean, and arguably elsewhere. The origins of peralkaline magmas are frequently linked to low-degree partial melting of enriched mantle, followed by protracted differentiation in the shallow crust. However, additional petrogenetic processes such as magma mixing, crustal melting, and contamination have been identified at numerous peralkaline centers. The onset of peralkalinity leads to magma viscosities lower than those typical for metaluminous felsic magmas, which has profound implications for processes such as crystal settling. This study represents a compilation of published and original data which demonstrates trends that suggest that the peralkaline magmas of the Atlantic Ocean islands are generated primarily via extended (up to ∼ 95%), open system fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas. Crustal assimilation is likely to become more significant as the system matures and fusible material accumulates in the crust. Magma mixing may occur between various compositional end-members and may be recognized via hybridized intermediate magmas. The peralkaline magmas are hydrous, and frequently zoned in composition, temperature, and/or water content. They are typically stored in shallow crustal magma reservoirs (∼ 2–5 km), maintained by mafic replenishment. Low melt viscosities (1 × 101.77 to 1 × 104.77 Pa s) facilitate two-phase flow, promoting the formation of alkali-feldspar crystal mush. This mush may then contribute melt to an overlying melt lens via filter pressing or partial melting. We utilize a three-stage model to account for the establishment, development, and termination of peralkaline magmatism in the ocean island magmatic systems of the Atlantic. We suggest that the overall control on peralkaline magmatism in the Atlantic is magma flux rate, which controls the stability of upper crustal magma reservoirs. The abundance of peralkaline magmas in the Atlantic suggests that their development must be a common, but not inevitable, stage in the evolution of ocean islands.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via Frontiers Media at https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2018.00145 - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GB Physical geography
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 27 Nov 2018 16:33
Last Modified: 27 Nov 2018 16:35
URI: http://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/5532

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