Kwok, CS ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7047-1586, Gulati, M, Michos, E, Potts, J ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9333-5787, Wu, P, Watson, L, Loke, Y, Mallen, CD ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2677-1028 and Mamas, M ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9241-8890 (2019) Dietary components and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: A review of evidence from meta-analyses. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

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Abstract

Aims
The optimal diet for cardiovascular health is controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize the highest level of evidence and rank the risk associated with each individual component of diet within its food group.

Methods and results
A systematic search of PudMed was performed to identify the highest level of evidence available from systematic reviews or meta-analyses that evaluated different dietary components and their associated risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 16 reviews were included for dietary food item and all-cause mortality and 17 reviews for CVD. Carbohydrates were associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (whole grain bread RR 0.85(95% CI 0.82-0.89), breakfast cereal RR 0.88(0.83-0.92), oats/oatmeal RR 0.88(0.83-0.92)). Fish consumption was associated with a small benefit (RR 0.98 (0.97-1.00)) and processed meat appeared to be harmful (RR 1.25(1.07-1.45)). Root vegetables (RR 0.76(0.66-0.88)), green leafy vegetables/salad (RR 0.78(0.71-0.86)), cooked vegetables (RR 0.89(0.80-0.99)) and cruciferous vegetables (RR 0.90(0.85-0.95)) were associated with reductions in all-cause mortality. Increased mortality was associated with consumption of tinned fruit (RR 1.14(1.07-1.21)). Nuts were associated with a reduced risk of mortality in a dose response relationship (all nuts RR 0.78(0.72-0.84), tree nuts RR 0.82(0.75-0.90), and peanuts RR 0.77(0.69-0.86)). For CVD, similar associations for benefit were observed for carbohydrates, nuts and fish, but red meat and processed meat were associated with harm.

Conclusions
Many dietary components appear to be beneficial for CVD and mortality, including grains, fish, nuts and vegetables, but processed meat and tinned fruit appear to be harmful.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The final published version of this accepted manuscript will be available online at http://doi.org/10.1177%2F2047487319843667
Uncontrolled Keywords: diet, epidemiology, systematic review
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC666 Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Primary Care Health Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2019 15:24
Last Modified: 02 May 2019 10:41
URI: http://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/6108

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