Tan, WS, Bajpai, R ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1227-2703, Low, CK, Ho, AHY, Wu, HY and Car, J (2019) Individual, clinical and system factors associated with the place of death: A linked national database study. PLoS One, 14 (4). e0215566 - e0215566.

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Abstract

Background
Many middle- and high-income countries face the challenge of meeting preferences for home deaths. A better understanding of associated factors could support the design and implementation of policies and practices to enable dying at home. This study aims to identify factors associated with the place of death in Singapore, a country with a strong sense of filial piety.

Settings/participants
A retrospective cohort of 62,951 individuals (≥21 years old) who had died from chronic diseases in Singapore between 2012–2015 was obtained. Home death was defined as a death that occurred in a private residence whereas non-home deaths occurred in hospitals, nursing homes, hospices and other locations. Data were obtained by extracting and linking data from five different databases. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of individual, clinical and system factors sequentially.

Results
Twenty-eight percent of deaths occurred at home. Factors associated with home death included being 85 years old or older (OR 4.45, 95% CI 3.55–5.59), being female (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.16–1.25), and belonging to Malay ethnicity (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.82–2.01). Compared to malignant neoplasm, deaths as a result of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.69–2.20), and cerebrovascular diseases (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.19–1.36) were also associated with a higher likelihood of home death. Independently, receiving home palliative care (OR 3.45, 95% CI 3.26–3.66) and having a documented home death preference (OR 5.08, 95% CI 3.96–6.51) raised the odds of home deaths but being admitted to acute hospitals near the end-of-life was associated with lower odds (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90–0.94).

Conclusion
Aside from cultural and clinical factors, system-based factors including access to home palliative care and discussion and documentation of preferences were found to influence the likelihood of home deaths. Increasing home palliative care capacity and promoting advance care planning could facilitate home deaths if this is the desired option of patients.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2019 Tan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: palliative care; Singapore; Malay people; Hospitals; Ethnic epidemiology; Nursing homes; Health care policy; Neoplasms
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Primary Care Health Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2019 13:09
Last Modified: 03 May 2019 15:59
URI: http://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/6232

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