Silventoinen, K, Jelenkovic, A, Sund, R, Yokoyama, Y, Hur, Y-M, Cozen, W, Hwang, AE, Mack, TM, Honda, C, Inui, F, Iwatani, Y, Watanabe, M, Tomizawa, R, Pietiläinen, KH, Rissanen, A, Siribaddana, SH, Hotopf, M, Sumathipala, A, Rijsdijk, F, Tan, Q, Zhang, D, Pang, Z, Piirtola, M, Aaltonen, S, Öncel, SY, Aliev, F, Rebato, E, Hjelmborg, JB, Christensen, K, Skytthe, A, Kyvik, KO, Silberg, JL, Eaves, LJ, Cutler, TL, Ordoñana, JR, Sánchez-Romera, JF, Colodro-Conde, L, Song, Y-M, Yang, S, Lee, K, Franz, CE, Kremen, WS, Lyons, MJ, Busjahn, A, Nelson, TL, Whitfield, KE, Kandler, C, Jang, KL, Gatz, M, Butler, DA, Stazi, MA, Fagnani, C, D'Ippolito, C, Duncan, GE, Buchwald, D, Martin, NG, Medland, SE, Montgomery, GW, Jeong, H-U, Swan, GE, Krasnow, R, Magnusson, PK, Pedersen, NL, Dahl Aslan, AK, McAdams, TA, Eley, TC, Gregory, AM, Tynelius, P, Baker, LA, Tuvblad, C, Bayasgalan, G, Narandalai, D, Spector, TD, Mangino, M, Lachance, G, Burt, SA, Klump, KL, Harris, JR, Brandt, I, Nilsen, TS, Krueger, RF, McGue, M, Pahlen, S, Corley, RP, Huibregtse, BM, Bartels, M, van Beijsterveldt, CE, Willemsen, G, Goldberg, JH, Rasmussen, F, Tarnoki, AD, Tarnoki, DL, Derom, CA, Vlietinck, RF, Loos, RJ, Hopper, JL, Sung, J, Maes, HH, Turkheimer, E, Boomsma, DI, Sørensen, TI and Kaprio, J (2017) Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106 (2). 457 - 466.

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Abstract

Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity.Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins ≥20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs).Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 20-29 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI.Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The final version of this article is available from the publisher at https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/106/2/457/4557631#supplementary-data
Uncontrolled Keywords: BMI; adults; genetics; twins; international comparisons
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Primary Care Health Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 08 Aug 2019 09:30
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2019 09:30
URI: http://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/6651

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