Whelan, G, Sim, J ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1816-1676, Smith, B, Moffatt, M and Littlewood, C ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7703-727X (2022) Are cortictosteroid injections associated with secondary adrenal insufficiency in adults with musculoskeletal pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 480 (6). pp. 1061-1074.

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Abstract

Background
Corticosteroid injection is a very common treatment for individuals experiencing musculoskeletal pain, and it is part of the management of numerous orthopaedic conditions. However, there is concern about offering corticosteroid injections for musculoskeletal pain because of the possibility of secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Questions/purposes
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies, we asked: (1) Are corticosteroid injections associated with secondary adrenal insufficiency as measured by 7-day morning serum cortisol? (2) Does this association differ depending on whether the shot was administered in the spine or the appendicular skeleton?

Methods
We searched Allied and Complementary Medicine AMED, Embase, Emcare, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science from inception to January 22, 2021. We retrieved 4303 unique records, of which 17 were eventually included. Study appraisal was via the Downs and Black tool, with an average quality rating of fair. A Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations assessment was conducted with the overall certainty of evidence being low to moderate. Reflecting heterogeneity in the study estimates, a pooled random-effects estimate of cortisol levels 7 days after corticosteroid injection was calculated. Fifteen studies or subgroups (254 participants) provided appropriate estimates for statistical pooling. A total of 106 participants received a spine injection, and 148 participants received an appendicular skeleton injection, including the glenohumeral joint, subacromial bursa, trochanteric bursa, and knee.

Results
Seven days after corticosteroid injection, the mean morning serum cortisol was 212 nmol/L (95% confidence interval 133 to 290), suggesting that secondary adrenal insufficiency was a possible outcome. There is a difference in the secondary adrenal insufficiency risk 3 depending on whether the injection was in the spine or the appendicular skeleton. For spinal injection, the mean cortisol was 98 nmol/L (95% CI 48 to 149), suggesting secondary adrenal insufficiency was likely. For appendicular skeleton injection the mean cortisol was 311 nmol/L (95% CI 213 to 409) suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrity was likely.

Conclusion
Clinicians offering spinal injections should discuss the possibility of short-term secondary adrenal insufficiency with patients, and together, they can decide whether the treatment remains appropriate and whether mitigation strategies are needed. Clinicians offering appendicular skeleton injections should not limit care because of concerns about secondary adrenal insufficiency based on the best available evidence, and clinical guidelines could be reviewed accordingly. Further research is required to understand whether age and/or sex determine risk of secondary adrenal insufficiency and what clinical impact secondary adrenal insufficiency has on patients undergoing spinal injection.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The final version of this article and all relevant information related to it, including copyrights, can be found on the publisher website.
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General) > R735 Medical education. Medical schools. Research
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology > Physical medicine. Physical therapy. Including massage, exercise, occupational therapy, hydrotherapy, phototherapy, radiotherapy, thermotherapy, electrotherapy
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 03 Feb 2022 16:17
Last Modified: 05 Jul 2022 12:35
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/10569

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