Yu, D ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8449-7725, Wang, Z, Cai, Y, McBride, K, Osuagwu, U, Pickering, K, Baker, J, Cutfield, R, Orr-Walker, B, Sundborn, G, Jameson, M, Zhao, Z and Simmons, D (2022) Ethnic Differences in Cancer Rates Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes in New Zealand From 1994 to 2018. Jama Network Open, 5 (2).

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Abstract

Importance People with type 2 diabetes have greater risk for some site-specific cancers, and risks of cancers differ among racial and ethnic groups in the general population of Aotearoa New Zealand. The extent of ethnic disparities in cancer risks among people with type 2 diabetes in New Zealand is unclear.

Objective To compare the risks of 21 common adult cancers among Māori, Pasifika, and New Zealand European individuals with type 2 diabetes in New Zealand from 1994 to 2018.

Design, Setting, and Participants This population-based, matched cohort study used data from the primary care audit program in Auckland, New Zealand, linked with national cancer, death, and hospitalization registration databases, collected from January 1, 1994, to July 31, 2018, with follow-up data obtained through December 31, 2019. Using a tapered matching method to balance potential confounders (sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical measurements, treatments [antidiabetes, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and anticoagulant], period effects, and recorded duration of diabetes), comparative cohorts were formed between New Zealand European and Māori and New Zealand European and Pasifika individuals aged 18 years or older with type 2 diabetes. Sex-specific matched cohorts were formed for sex-specific cancers.

Exposures Māori, Pasifika, and New Zealand European (reference group) ethnicity.

Main Outcomes and Measures The incidence rates of 21 common cancers recorded in nationally linked databases between 1994 and 2018 were the main outcomes. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess ethnic differences in risk of each cancer.

Results A total of 33 524 adults were included: 15 469 New Zealand European (mean [SD] age, 61.6 [13.2] years; 8522 [55.1%] male), 6656 Māori (mean [SD] age, 51.2 [12.4] years; 3345 [50.3%] female), and 11 399 Pasifika (mean [SD] age, 52.8 [12.7] years; 5994 [52.6%] female) individuals. In the matched New Zealand European and Māori cohort (New Zealand European: 8361 individuals; mean [SD] age, 58.9 [12.9] years; 4595 [55.0%] male; Māori: 5039 individuals; mean [SD] age, 51.4 [12.3] years; 2542 [50.5%] male), significant differences between New Zealand European and Māori individuals were identified in the risk for 7 cancers. Compared with New Zealand European individuals, the hazard ratios (HRs) among Māori individuals were 15.36 (95% CI, 4.50-52.34) for thyroid cancer, 7.94 (95% CI, 1.57-40.24) for gallbladder cancer, 4.81 (95% CI, 1.08-21.42) for cervical cancer (females only), 1.97 (95% CI, 1.30-2.99) for lung cancer, 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08-3.03) for liver cancer, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.35-0.90) for colon cancer, and 0.11 (95% CI, 0.04-0.27) for malignant melanoma. In the matched New Zealand European and Pasifika cohort (New Zealand European: 9340 individuals; mean [SD] age, 60.6 [13.1] years; 4885 [52.3%] male; Pasifika: 8828 individuals; mean [SD] age, 53.1 [12.6] years; 4612 [52.2%] female), significant differences between New Zealand European and Pasifika individuals were identified for 6 cancers. Compared with New Zealand European individuals, HRs among Pasifika individuals were 25.10 (95% CI, 3.14-200.63) for gallbladder cancer, 4.47 (95% CI, 1.25-16.03) for thyroid cancer, 0.48 (95% CI, 0.30-0.78) for colon cancer, 0.21 (95% CI, 0.09-0.48) for rectal cancer, 0.21 (95% CI, 0.07-0.65) for malignant melanoma, and 0.01 (95% CI, 0.01-0.10) for bladder cancer.

Conclusions and Relevance In this cohort study, differences in the risk of 21 common cancers were found between New Zealand European, Māori, and Pasifika groups of adults with type 2 diabetes in New Zealand from 1994 to 2018. Research into the mechanisms underlying these differences as well as additional screening strategies (eg, for thyroid and gallbladder cancers) appear to be warranted.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium. You are not required to obtain permission to reuse this article content, provided that you credit the author and journal.
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC660 Diabetes
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2022 10:25
Last Modified: 13 Apr 2022 12:40
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/10603

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