Madden, C, Pringle, JK ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0009-361X, Jeffery, A, Wisniewski, K ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5408-2417, Heaton, V ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4658-9952, Oliver, IW ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3105-1196, Glanville, HC ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8192-6678, Stimpson, IG ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1931-0522, Dick, H, Eeley, M and Goodwin, J (2022) Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) analysis of heavy metal contamination in church graveyards with contrasting soil types. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

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Abstract

Human remains have been interred in burial grounds since historic times. Although the re-use of graveyards differs from one country, region or time-period to another, over time graveyard soil may become contaminated or enriched with heavy metal elements. This paper presents heavy metal element soil analysis from two UK church graveyard study sites with contrasting necrosols, but similar burial densities and known burial ages dating back to the 16th Century and some possibly older than 1,000 years. Portable X-Ray fluorescence (pXRF) element laboratory-based analyses were undertaken on surface and near-surface soil pellets. Results show elevated levels of Fe, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ca in both necrosols when compared with background values. Element concentration anomalies remained consistently higher than background samples down to 2 m , but reduced with distance away from church buildings. Element concentration anomalies are higher in the clay-rich necrosol than in sandy necrosol. Study results implications suggest that long-used necrosols are likely to be more contaminated with heavy-metal elements than similar soil outside graveyards with implications for burial grounds management, adjacent populations and where burial grounds have been deconsecrated and turned to residential dwellings.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Graveyards; Burials; XRF; Element analysis; Contaminated land
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD415 Biochemistry
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Chemical and Physical Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2022 08:59
Last Modified: 17 May 2022 15:19
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/10727

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