Divakar, U, Sathish, T, Soljak, M, Bajpai, R, Dunleavy, G, Visvalingam, N, Nazeha, N, Soh, CK, Christopoulos, G and Car, J (2019) Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Associated Work-Related Factors among Indoor Workers in a Multi-Ethnic Southeast Asian Country. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (1).

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Abstract

Little is known about the effect of working conditions on vitamin D status in Southeast Asia, where vitamin D deficiency is common despite the presence of sunlight all year round in most places. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated work-related factors among indoor workers using the data of 213 participants (aged ≥21 years) from a workplace cohort study in Singapore. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <50 nmol/L. Data on work-related factors, socio-demographic characteristics, and lifestyle habits were collected using standardized questionnaires. Clinical and biochemical measurements were performed using standard tools and protocols. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to examine the independent association of work-related factors with vitamin D deficiency. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 59.6 nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 32.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.6-39.6%). In the multivariate analysis, office workers (prevalence ratio (PR): 2.16, 95% CI: 1.12-4.16 versus control room workers), workshop workers (PR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.05-4.81 versus control room workers), and night shift workers (PR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03-1.67) were at a greater risk for vitamin D deficiency. Workplace policies and wellness programs should encourage workers to take regular breaks to go outdoors for sunlight exposure and to consume adequate amounts of vitamin D-rich foods to maintain optimal vitamin D levels.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via MDPI at https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010164 - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Singapore, cross-sectional study, indoor workers, vitamin D deficiency, workplace
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Primary Care Health Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2020 15:55
Last Modified: 10 Jan 2020 15:56
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/7477

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