Forrester, NL, Wertheim, JO, Dugan, VG, Auguste, AJ, Lin, D, Adams, AP, Chen, R, Gorchakov, R, Leal, G, Estrada-Franco, JG, Pandya, J, Halpin, RA, Hari, K, Jain, R, Stockwell, TB, Das, SR, Wentworth, DE, Smith, MD, Kosakovsky Pond, SL and Weaver, SC (2017) Evolution and spread of Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphavirus in the Americas. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11 (8).

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Abstract

Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses are important re-emerging arboviruses that cause life-threatening disease in equids during epizootics as well as spillover human infections. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of VEE complex alphaviruses by sequencing the genomes of 94 strains and performing phylogenetic analyses of 130 isolates using complete open reading frames for the nonstructural and structural polyproteins. Our analyses confirmed purifying selection as a major mechanism influencing the evolution of these viruses as well as a confounding factor in molecular clock dating of ancestors. Times to most recent common ancestors (tMRCAs) could be robustly estimated only for the more recently diverged subtypes; the tMRCA of the ID/IAB/IC/II and IE clades of VEE virus (VEEV) were estimated at ca. 149–973 years ago. Evolution of the IE subtype has been characterized by a significant evolutionary shift from the rest of the VEEV complex, with an increase in structural protein substitutions that are unique to this group, possibly reflecting adaptation to its unique enzootic mosquito vector Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus. Our inferred tree topologies suggest that VEEV is maintained primarily in situ, with only occasional spread to neighboring countries, probably reflecting the limited mobility of rodent hosts and mosquito vectors.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright: This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Uncontrolled Keywords: spread, Venezuelan, equine encephalitis, alphavirus, Americas
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General) > R735 Medical education. Medical schools. Research
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2020 11:52
Last Modified: 04 Nov 2020 15:01
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/7696

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