Halama, R ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9770-6784 (2020) Deciphering the Jurassic–Cretaceous evolution of the Hamadan metamorphic complex during Neotethys subduction, western Iran. International Journal of Earth Sciences.

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Abstract

The Hamadan high-grade metapelites in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, Iran, show a polymetamorphic evolution with relics of a garnet-bearing metamorphic mineral assemblage (M1), a contact metamorphic overprint (M2) related to the emplacement of the Middle to Late Jurassic Alvand composite pluton and a Buchan-type regional metamorphic event (M3) marked by 40Ar/39Ar ages in the 80–70 Ma range that is associated with penetrative ductile deformation producing a foliation and a thermal overprint onto the M2 assemblages. The M1 event is exclusively preserved as small garnet grains and mineral inclusions contained therein, incorporated into M2-stage cordierite porphyroblasts. Distinct metamorphic zones are developed over a region of ~ 600 km2, which are partly correlated with distance to the composite pluton: zones (1) cordierite + K-feldspar hornfels, and (2) andalusite ± cordierite hornfels that surround the Alvand composite pluton at a distance of up to 5 km. These two zones are clearly related to M2 metamorphism associated with pluton emplacement. Zones (3) staurolite schist, (4) andalusite schist, and (5) sillimanite schist are found outside of the contact aureole and are considered to be the result of regional M3 metamorphism in the eastern part distant to the Alvand composite pluton. Conventional thermobarometry shows that temperatures in the area vary between ~ 560 and 660 °C for zones 1 and 2 and ~ 490 and 690 °C for zones 3–5. Phase equilibria modelling in the MnNCKFMASHT system indicates two distinct isobaric prograde paths at low pressures, at ~ 2.7 kbar for zones 1 and 2 and slightly higher pressures of around 3.5–5.5 kbar for zones 3–5. U–Th–Pb monazite geochronology revealed overlapping ages of 168 ± 11 Ma and 149 ± 19 Ma in the hornfels (1 and 2) and schistose (3–5) zones, respectively. These ages are similar to the intrusion age of the Alvand composite pluton (153.3 ± 2.7 to 166.5 ± 1.8 Ma) and are interpreted to reflect heating due to the emplacement of the composite pluton (M2 contact metamorphic event). However, 40Ar/39Ar dating of white mica and amphibole yielded plateau ages ranging from 80 to 69 Ma over the entire transect. The formation of schistosity in zones 3–5 postdates the intrusion and is thus related to M3 metamorphism. The white mica fabric indicates formation of the foliation during M3 garnet growth, which is followed by local retrogression of garnet to chlorite during exhumation. Consequently, the 40Ar/39Ar white mica and amphibole ages likely indicate reheating during M3 to more than ca. 500 ± 25 °C (argon retention temperature in amphibole). These data establish the occurrence of a Cretaceous, Buchan-style regional metamorphic event that had not been firmly identified before. Subsequent Late Cretaceous exhumation of the Hamadan complex with its high-grade metapelites is due to extension along the Tafrijan–Mangavi–Kandelan fault, which represents a major ductile low-angle normal fault. Metamorphic temperatures coupled with mineral ages from this and published work suggest a fast stage of cooling with a rate of ~ 6 °C/Ma during exhumation after M3 metamorphism.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hamadan metamorphic complex, Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, thermobarometry, (U–Th)–Pb monazite dating, 40Ar/39Ar dating, petrochronology
Subjects: D History General and Old World > D History (General)
D History General and Old World > DS Asia
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General)
Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2020 09:33
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2020 11:00
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/8183

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