Man, GCW, Wang, J, Song, Y, Wong, JH, Zhao, Y, Lau, TS, Leung, KT, Chan, TH, Wang, H, Kwong, J, Ng, TB and Wang, CC (2020) Therapeutic potential of a novel prodrug of green tea extract in induction of apoptosis via ERK/JNK and Akt signaling pathway in human endometrial cancer. BMC Cancer, 20 (1).

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Abstract

Abstract

Background
Previous studies have shown a major green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate ((−)-EGCG) as a powerful anti-cancer agent. However, its poor bioavailability and requirement of a high dosage to manifest activity have restricted its clinical application. Recently, our team synthesized a peracetate-protected derivative of EGCG, which can act as a prodrug of (−)-EGCG (ProEGCG) with enhanced stability and improved bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of this novel ProEGCG, in comparison to EGCG, toward human endometrial cancer (EC).

Methods
In this study, the effects of ProEGCG and EGCG treatments on cell growth, cell survival and modulation of intracellular signaling pathways in RL95–2 and AN3 CA EC cells were compared. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated by cell viability assay. Apoptosis was measured by annexin/propidium iodide staining. Expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases, markers of proliferation and apoptosis were measured by immunoblot analysis. In addition, the effects of ProEGCG and EGCG on tumor growth, vessel formation and gene expression profiles on xenograft models of the EC cells were investigated.

Results
We found that treatment with ProEGCG, but not EGCG, inhibited, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, the proliferation and increased apoptosis of EC cells. Treatment with low-dose ProEGCG significantly enhanced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK and inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and ERK which are critical mediators of apoptosis. ProEGCG, but not EGCG, elicited a significant decrease in the growth of the EC xenografts, promoted apoptotic activity of tumour cells in the EC xenografts, and decreased microvessel formation, by differentially suppressing anti-apoptotic molecules, NOD1 and NAIP. Notably, no obvious adverse effects were detected.

Conclusions
Taken together, ProEGCG at a low dose exhibited anticancer activity in EC cells through its anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor actions on endometrial cancer in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, a low dose of EGCG did not bring about similar effects. Importantly, our data demonstrated the efficacy and safety of ProEGCG which manifests the potential of a novel anticancer agent for the management of endometrial cancer.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: ProEGCG, Endometrial cancer, Apoptosis, Anticancer, Anti-angiogenesis, Akt pathway
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 15 Oct 2020 16:45
Last Modified: 15 Oct 2020 16:50
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/8789

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