Mohamed, MO ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9678-5222, Rashid, M ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9725-1583, timmis, A, clarke, S, Lawson, C, michos, E, Kwok, CS ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7047-1586, de belder, M, valgimigli, M and Mamas, M ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9241-8890 (2020) Sex differences in distribution, management and outcomes of combined ischemic-bleeding risk following acute coronary syndrome. International Journal of Cardiology.

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Abstract

Background
Risk factors for further bleeding and ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) often overlap. Little is known about sex-based differences in the management and outcomes of ACS patients according to their combined bleeding-ischemic risk.

Methods
All ACS hospitalizations in the United Kingdom (2010-2017) were retrospectively analyzed, stratified by sex and bleeding-ischemic risk combination (using CRUSADE and GRACE scores). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine association between risk-groups and 1) receipt of guideline-recommended management and 2) in-hospital outcomes.

Results
Of 584,360 patients, a third of males (32.3%) and females (32.6%) were in the dual high-risk group (High CRUSADE- High GRACE). In comparison to the dual low-risk group (Low CRUSADE-Low GRACE), the dual high-risk patients of both sexes were 59-83% less likely to receive coronary angiography (CA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 31-34% less likely to receive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on discharge, with a significant increase in odds of MACE (8-fold), all-cause and cardiac mortality (30 to 40-fold), and bleeding (40-43%). The greatest difference in management and clinical outcomes between sexes was found in the dual-high risk group where females were less likely to receive guideline-recommended therapy (PCI and DAPT), compared to males, and were more likely to experience MACE, all-cause and cardiac mortality.

Conclusion
ACS patients with dual high-risk for bleeding and recurrent ischemia, especially females, are less likely to receive guideline-recommended therapy and experience significantly worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed to effectively manage this highly prevalent, complex patient group and address the under-treatment of females.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted author manuscript (AAM). The final published version (version of record) is available online via Elsevier at https://www.internationaljournalofcardiology.com/ - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC666 Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Primary, Community and Social Care
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 22 Dec 2020 09:22
Last Modified: 04 Jan 2021 12:29
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/9034

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