Ayub, M, Arsalan, A, Khan, S-U-DA, Bajwa, S, Hussain, F, Umar, M, Khizar, B, Sibtain, M, Butt, A, Mukhtar-Ul-Haq, M, Dogar, IA, Ansari, MA, Shafiq, S, Tariq, M, Hussain, MI, Nasar, A, Mustafa, AB, Taj, R, Rehman, RU, Rajput, AH, Ambreen, S, Naqvi, SQ-E-H, Mehmood, K, Khan, MY, Ali, J, Mehmood, N, Amir, A, Nasr, T, Rabbani, F, Afridi, A, Nazar, Z, Idrees, M, Chishti, AUH, Khan, RMS, Khan, A, Aslam, R, Mehdi, M, Asif, A, Zulqarnain, A, Afridi, J, Hussain, A, Anwar, S, Salman, S, Khan, I, ul Mabood, Z, Hamzalah, H, Javed, A, Nawaz, K, Zahra, K, Nayyar, U, Tooba, S, Rajput, AA, Anjum, A, Rehman, A, Kanwal, M, Yasmeen, T, Hassan, S, Zaidi, MA, Nayab, DE, Kamal, M, Jamil, B, Malik, R, Ul Haq, I, Bibi, Z, Nawaz, K, Anwer, M, Javed, A, Rana, NH, Khan, MNS, Naeem, F, Pato, CN, Pato, MT, Farooq, S ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2088-6876 and Knowles, JA (2021) Self-reported health and smoking status, and body mass index: a case-control comparison based on GEN SCRIP (GENetics of SChizophRenia In Pakistan) data. BMJ Open, 11 (4). pp. 1-9.

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Abstract

Introduction Individuals with schizophrenia are at a high risk of physical health comorbidities and premature mortality. Cardiovascular and metabolic causes are an important contributor. There are gaps in monitoring, documenting and managing these physical health comorbidities. Because of their condition, patients themselves may not be aware of these comorbidities and may not be able to follow a lifestyle that prevents and manages the complications. In many low-income and middle-income countries including Pakistan, the bulk of the burden of care for those struggling with schizophrenia falls on the families.

Objectives To determine the rate of self-reported physical health disorders and risk factors, like body mass index (BMI) and smoking, associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in cases of schizophrenia compared with a group of mentally healthy controls.

Design A case-controlled, cross-sectional multicentre study of patients with schizophrenia in Pakistan.

Settings Multiple data collection sites across the country for patients, that is, public and private psychiatric OPDs (out patient departments), specialised psychiatric care facilities, and psychiatric wards of teaching and district level hospitals. Healthy controls were enrolled from the community.

Participants We report a total of 6838 participants’ data with (N 3411 (49.9%)) cases of schizophrenia compared with a group of healthy controls (N 3427 (50.1%)).

Results BMI (OR 0.98 (CI 0.97 to 0.99), p=0.0025), and the rate of smoking is higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. Problems with vision (OR 0.13 (0.08 to 0.2), joint pain (OR 0.18 (0.07 to 0.44)) and high cholesterol (OR 0.13 (0.05 to 0.35)) have higher reported prevalence in controls. The cases describe more physical health disorders in the category ‘other’ (OR 4.65 (3.01 to 7.18)). This captures residual disorders not listed in the questionnaire.

Conclusions Participants with schizophrenia in comparison with controls report more disorders. The access in the ‘other’ category may be a reflection of undiagnosed disorders.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Uncontrolled Keywords: schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, public health, mental health
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Primary, Community and Social Care
Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Psychology
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2021 09:55
Last Modified: 13 Jul 2021 13:34
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/9716

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