Walker-Bone, K and van der Windt, DAWM (2021) Shoulder Pain — Where Are We Now? Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology. ISSN 2198-6002

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Purpose of Review Shoulder pain is common and costly. For the past century, diagnosis and management has been based upon presumed patho-anatomical abnormalities. With the evolution of imaging techniques and new insight about the causes of musculoskeletal pain, this review evaluates the evidence that a patho-anatomical approach remains justified. Recent Findings Imaging modalities have developed considerably but, so far, have only proven value in evaluating full thickness rotator cuff tears prior to surgery. Correlation between imaging findings and symptoms is otherwise poor, with limited evidence of the value and impact of imaging for decision-making. Much of shoulder pain is chronic and few people have single-site musculoskeletal pain. Pain studies suggest that chronic shoulder pain is associated with both central and peripheral pain sensitisation. Moreover, functional MRI points to an effect of cognitive affective pain processing rather than nociception. Few of the established therapies, medical or surgical, that treat the presumed patho-anatomical cause have been shown to have lasting benefit. Much of the evidence suggests that shoulder pain is more similar than different from mechanical low back pain. For most people with shoulder pain, the best approach might well be de-medicalisation, support to (self)manage pain, emphasis on retaining movement and identifying adverse beliefs and risk factors for disability and chronicity. Approaches like this are currently being evaluated and more research is desperately required.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords: Shoulder pain; Chronic shoulder pain; Imaging of the shoulder; Risk factors; Treatment of shoulder pain
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 14 Oct 2021 11:18
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2021 15:48
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/10135

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