Dale, C, Takhar, R, Carragher, R, Torabi, F, Katsoulis, M, Duffield, S, Kent, S, Mueller, T, Kurdi, A, McTaggart, S, Abbasizanjani, H, Hollings, S, Scourfield, A, Lyons, R, Griffiths, R, Lyons, J, Davies, G, Harris, D, Handy, A, Mizani, MA, Tomlinson, C, Ashworth, M, Denaxas, S, Banerjee, A, Sterne, J, Lovibond, K, Brown, P, Bullard, I, Priedon, R, Mamas, MA, Slee, A, Lorgelly, P, Pirmohamed, M, Khunti, K, Sattar, N, Morris, A, Sudlow, C, Akbari, A, Bennie, M and Sofat, R (2022) The adverse impact of COVID-19 pandemic on cardiovascular disease prevention and management in England, Scotland and Wales: A population-scale analysis of trends in medication data. medRxiv.

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<h4>Objectives</h4> To estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD management using routinely collected medication data as a proxy. <h4>Design</h4> Descriptive and interrupted time series analysis using anonymised individual-level population-scale data for 1.32 billion records of dispensed CVD medications across 15.8 million individuals in England, Scotland and Wales. <h4>Setting</h4> Community dispensed CVD medications with 100% coverage from England, Scotland and Wales, plus primary care prescribed CVD medications from England (including 98% English general practices). <h4>Participants</h4> 15.8 million individuals aged 18+ years alive on 1 st April 2018 dispensed at least one CVD medicine in a year from England, Scotland and Wales. <h4>Main outcome measures</h4> Monthly counts, percent annual change (1 st April 2018 to 31 st July 2021) and annual rates (1 st March 2018 to 28 th February 2021) of medicines dispensed by CVD/ CVD risk factor; prevalent and incident use. <h4>Results</h4> Year-on-year change in dispensed CVD medicines by month were observed, with notable uplifts ahead of the first (11.8% higher in March 2020) but not subsequent national lockdowns. Using hypertension as one example of the indirect impact of the pandemic, we observed 491,203 fewer individuals initiated antihypertensive treatment across England, Scotland and Wales during the period March 2020 to end May 2021 than would have been expected compared to 2019. We estimated that this missed antihypertension treatment could result in 13,659 additional CVD events should individuals remain untreated, including 2,281 additional myocardial infarctions (MIs) and 3,474 additional strokes. Incident use of lipid-lowering medicines decreased by an average 14,793 per month in early 2021 compared with the equivalent months prior to the pandemic in 2019. In contrast, the use of incident medicines to treat type-2 diabetes (T2DM) increased by approximately 1,642 patients per month. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Management of key CVD risk factors as proxied by incident use of CVD medicines has not returned to pre-pandemic levels in the UK. Novel methods to identify and treat individuals who have missed treatment are urgently required to avoid large numbers of additional future CVD events, further adding indirect cost of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is a preprint version which has not yet been peer reviewed or accepted for publication (as of 26/01/22). For any information relating to copyrights and more, please visit 10.1101/2021.12.31.21268587. Any relevant information will be updated in time if this gets accepted for publication.
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC666 Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 26 Jan 2022 10:46
Last Modified: 26 Jan 2022 10:46
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/10528

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