Chen, Y, Ma, ZF, Yu, D, Jiang, Z, Wang, B and Yuan, L (2022) Geographical distribution of trace elements (selenium, zinc, iron, copper) and case fatality rate of COVID-19: a national analysis across conterminous USA. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. ISSN 0269-4042

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Abstract

Severe outcome particularly death is the largest burden of COVID-19. Clinical observations showed preliminary data that deficiency in certain trace elements, essential for the normal activity of immune system, may be associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. Relevant study of environmental epidemiology has yet to be explored. We investigated the geographical association between concentrations of Se, Zn, Fe and Cu in surface soils and case fatality rate of COVID-19 in USA. Two sets of database, including epidemiological data of COVID-19 (including case fatality rate, from the University of John Hopkinson) and geochemical concentration data of Se, Zn, Fe and Cu in surface soils (from the National Geochemical Survey), were mapped according to geographical location at the county level across conterminous USA. Characteristics of population, socio-demographics and residential environment by county were also collected. Seven cross-sectional sampling dates, with a 4-week interval between adjacent dates, constructed an observational investigation over 24 weeks from October 8, 2020, to March 25, 2021. Multivariable fractional (logit) outcome regression analyses were used to assess the association with adjustment for potential confounding factors. In USA counties with the lowest concentration of Zn, the case fatality rate of COVID-19 was the highest, after adjustment for other influencing factors. Associations of Se, Fe and Cu with case fatality rate of COVID-19 were either inconsistent over time or disappeared after adjustment for Zn. Our large study provides epidemiological evidence suggesting an association of Zn with COVID-19 severity, suggesting Zn deficiency should be avoided.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The final version of this accepted manuscript and all relevant information related to it, including copyrights, can be found on the publisher website at; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10653-022-01204-0
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General)
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography > GF31 Human Geography
R Medicine > R Medicine (General) > R735 Medical education. Medical schools. Research
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2022 16:29
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2022 16:29
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/10549

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