Turner, T, Wheeler, R and Oliver, IW (2022) Evaluating land application of pulp and paper mill sludge: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 317. 115439 - 115439. ISSN 0301-4797

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It is estimated that >400 Mt of board and paper are produced globally per year, and that 4.3–40 kg (dw) of sludge like material, pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS), is generated for every tonne of product. PPMS are now more widely reused in agriculture as a soil amendment due to their high organic content of 40–50% by weight, perceived low toxicity and possible liming capabilities. Within this review article historic and recent literature on PPMS land spreading are combined with knowledge of European and UK regulation to explore the benefits, potential impacts and viability of land spreading PPMS. The review reveals that risks relating to potential N immobilisation in soils post-application can be readily mitigated, if desired, by coapplication of an N source, or even pre-treatment of sludge via composting. The benefits to crops have been demonstrated emphatically, while negative ecological impacts under typical field application rates have not been observed to date. The case is therefore strong for continued land application of the material as an environmentally responsible and sustainable use option. However, there are currently gaps in the literature regarding longer-term implications of PPMS applications in agriculture and in regards to the possible presence of emerging contaminants in some PPMS materials, both of which have been identified as areas that merit further research.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pulp and paper mill sludge, Land spreading, Waste management, Soil health, Soil ammendment
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QE Geology
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 20 Jun 2022 14:25
Last Modified: 21 Jul 2022 12:42
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/11044

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