Beaumont, H, Burley, SD, Breitfeld, T, Gould, T and Clarke, SM (2022) Origin of Lower Cretaceous quartzose arenites in northern India and the Indus Basins of Pakistan-The result of provenance composition, weathering or diagenesis? Basin Research. ISSN 0950-091X

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Abstract

Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) sandstones of the Ghaggar-Hakra Formation in the Barmer Basin of northwest Rajasthan, India, have a complex depositional history which is confusing given they are quartzose arenites. The heavy mineral grains are very well-rounded, and the assemblage is dominated by zircon and rutile grains suggesting that the sediments have been recycled multiple times, whilst the presence of staurolite indicates a metapelite provenance component. Petrographical analysis suggests that extreme diagenesis cannot account for the quartzose arenite composition, despite Early Cretaceous soil formation and at least two periods of subsequent telogenetic modification. An alternative explanation to extreme chemical weathering in the provenance area is that the Ghaggar-Hakra sandstones are multi-cycle sediments derived, at least in part, from the quartzose arenites of the Cambrian Jodhpur Group. This analysis suggests that variations in detrital mineralogy across the Western India Rift System and Indus Basins are the result of transcontinental fluvial transport systems sourcing sediment from specific basement highs (Nagar Parker High, Devikot High, Deodar Ridge and Aravalli Mountain Range) mixed with varying proportions of sediment derived from sandstones of the Jodhpur Group. Consequently, we suggest that Cretaceous fluvial systems were controlled by the local palaeogeographies within the failed rifts of the Barmer and Cambay Basins and that both basins formed barriers to sediment transport from the Aravalli Mountain Range across the northwest Indian plate and into surrounding basins.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.© 2022 The Authors. Basin Research published by International Association of Sedimentologists and European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General)
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GB Physical geography
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2022 11:01
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2022 11:01
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/11664

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