Kwok, CS, Satchithananda, D, Ahmed, FZ, Chue, CD, Barker, D, Patwala, A, Duckett, S and Mallen, CD (2022) A Critical Evaluation of Patient Pathways and Missed Opportunities in Treatment for Heart Failure. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease, 9 (12). ISSN 2308-3425

[thumbnail of jcdd-09-00455-v2.pdf]
jcdd-09-00455-v2.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a global problem responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This review describes the patient pathways and missed opportunities related to treatment for patients with HF. RESULTS: The contemporary management strategies in HF, including medical therapies, device therapy, transplant, and palliative care. Despite the strong evidence base for therapies that improve prognosis and symptoms, there remains a large number of patients that are not optimally managed. The treatment of patients with HF is highly influenced by those who are caring for them and varies widely across geographical regions. HF patients can be broadly classified into two key groups: those who have known HF, and those who are incidentally found to have reduced left ventricular systolic dysfunction or other cardiac abnormality when an echocardiogram is performed. While all patients are under the care of a general practitioner or family doctor, in other instances, non-cardiologist physicians, cardiologists, and specialist HF nurses-each will have varying levels of expertise in managing HF-are part of the broader team involved in the specialist management of patients with HF. CONCLUSIONS: There are many potential missed opportunities in HF treatment, which include general opportunities, medications, etiology-specific therapy, device therapy, therapies when initial treatments fail, and palliative care.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Uncontrolled Keywords: heart failure; treatments; therapy; opportunities
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC666 Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2023 10:36
Last Modified: 02 Mar 2023 11:40

Actions (login required)

View Item
View Item