Collings, AJ and Richards, CT (2019) Digital dissection of the pelvis and hindlimb of the red-legged running frog, Phlyctimantis maculatus, using Diffusible Iodine Contrast Enhanced computed microtomography (DICE μCT). PeerJ, 7. e7003 - ?. ISSN 2167-8359

[thumbnail of Digital dissection of the pelvis and hindlimb of the red-legged running frog, iPhlyctimantis maculatusi, using Diffusible Io.pdf]
Digital dissection of the pelvis and hindlimb of the red-legged running frog, iPhlyctimantis maculatusi, using Diffusible Io.pdf - Published Version
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BACKGROUND: The current study applies both traditional and Diffusible Iodine Contrast Enhanced computed microtomography (DICE µCT) techniques to reveal the musculoskeletal anatomy of Phlyctimantis maculatus. DICE µCT has emerged as a powerful tool to visualise intricate musculoskeletal anatomy. By generating 3D digital models, anatomical analyses can be conducted non-destructively, preserving the in situ 3D topography of the system, therefore eliminating some of the drawbacks associated with traditional methods. We aim to describe the musculature of the spine, pelvis, and hindlimb, compare the musculoskeletal anatomy and pelvic morphology of P. maculatus with functionally diverse frogs, and produce 3D digital anatomy reference data. METHOD: An adult frog was stained using an aqueous Lugol's solution and scanned in a SkyScan1176 in vivo µCT scanner. Scan images were reconstructed, resampled, and digitally segmented to produce a 3D model. A further adult female frog was dissected traditionally for visualisation of tendinous insertions. RESULTS: Our work revealed three main findings: (1) P. maculatus has similar gross muscular anatomy to Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) but is distinct from those species that exhibit ancestral traits (leopelmids) and those that are highly specialised (pipids), (2) P. maculatus's pelvic anatomy best fits the description of Emerson's walking/hopping pelvic morphotype IIA, and (3) a split in the semimembranosus and gracilis major muscles is consistent with the reported myology in other anuran species. DISCUSSION: While DICE µCT methods were instrumental in characterising the 3D anatomy, traditional dissection was still required to visualise important structures such as the knee aponeurosis, tendinous insertions, and fasciae. Nonetheless, the anatomical data presented here marks the first detailed digital description of an arboreal and terrestrial frog. Further, our digital model presents P. maculatus as a good frog model system and as such has formed a crucial platform for further functional analysis within the anuran pelvis and hindlimb.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Frogs, Hindlimb, Pelvis, 3D, Digital dissection, DICE CT
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Chemical and Physical Sciences
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Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 28 Mar 2023 14:04
Last Modified: 28 Mar 2023 14:04

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