Wei, S, Miranda, JJ, Mamas, MA, Zühlke, LJ, Kontopantelis, E, Thabane, L and Van Spall, HGC (2022) Sex differences in the etiology and burden of heart failure across country income level: analysis of 204 countries and territories 1990–2019. European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. ISSN 2058-5225

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Background Heart failure (HF) is a global epidemic. Objective To assess global sex differences in HF epidemiology across country income levels. Methods and results Using Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data from 204 countries and territories 1990–2019, we assessed sex differences in HF prevalence, etiology, morbidity, and temporal trends across country sociodemographic index or gross national income. We derived age-standardized rates. Of 56.2 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46.4–67.8 million) people with HF in 2019, 50.3% were females and 69.2% lived in low- and middle-income countries; age-standardized prevalence was greater in males and in high-income countries. Ischaemic and hypertensive heart disease were top causes of HF in males and females, respectively. There were 5.1 million (95% UI 3.3–7.3 million) years lived with disability, distributed equally between sexes. Between 1990 and 2019, there was an increase in HF cases, but a decrease in age-standardized rates per 100 000 in males (9.1%, from 864.2 to 785.7) and females (5.8%, from 686.0 to 646.1). High-income regions experienced a 16.0% decrease in age-standardized rates (from 877.5 to 736.8), while low-income regions experienced a 3.9% increase (from 612.1 to 636.0), largely consistent across sexes. There was a temporal increase in age-standardized HF from hypertensive, rheumatic, and calcific aortic valvular heart disease, and a decrease from ischaemic heart disease, with regional and sex differences. Conclusion Age-standardized HF rates have decreased over time, with larger decreases in males than females; and with large decreases in high-income and small increases in low-income regions. Sex and regional differences offer targets for intervention.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
Uncontrolled Keywords: Epidemiology, Male, Female, Global Burden of Disease, Morbidity
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2023 14:17
Last Modified: 29 Mar 2023 14:17
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/12089

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