Lillo-Box, J, Gandolfi, D, Armstrong, DJ, Collins, KA, Nielsen, LD, Luque, R, Korth, J, Sousa, SG, Quinn, SN, Acuna, L, Howell, SB, Morello, G, Hellier, C, Giacalone, S, Hoyer, S, Stassun, K, Palle, E, Aguichine, A, Mousis, O, Adibekyan, V, Azevedo Silva, T, Barrado, D, Deleuil, M, Eastman, JD, Fukui, A, Hawthorn, F, Irwin, JM, Jenkins, JM, Latham, DW, Muresan, A, Narita, N, Persson, CM, Santerne, A, Santos, NC, Savel, AB, Osborn, HP, Teske, J, Wheatley, PJ, Winn, JN, Barros, SCC, Butler, RP, Caldwell, DA, Charbonneau, D, Cloutier, R, Crane, JD, Demangeon, ODS, Diaz, RF, Dumusque, X, Esposito, M, Falk, B, Gill, H, Hojjatpanah, S, Kreidberg, L, Mireles, I, Osborn, A, Ricker, GR, Rodriguez, JE, Schwarz, RP, Seager, S, Serrano Bell, J, Shectman, SA, Shporer, A, Vezie, M, Wang, SX and Zhou, G (2023) TOI-969: a late-K dwarf with a hot mini-Neptune in the desert and an eccentric cold Jupiter. Astronomy and Astrophysics: a European journal, 669. ISSN 0004-6361

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Context. The current architecture of a given multi-planetary system is a key fingerprint of its past formation and dynamical evolution history. Long-term follow-up observations are key to complete their picture. Aims. In this paper, we focus on the confirmation and characterization of the components of the TOI-969 planetary system, where TESS detected a Neptune-size planet candidate in a very close-in orbit around a late K-dwarf star. Methods. We use a set of precise radial velocity observations from HARPS, PFS, and CORALIE instruments covering more than two years in combination with the TESS photometric light curve and other ground-based follow-up observations to confirm and characterize the components of this planetary system. Results. We find that TOI-969 b is a transiting close-in (Pb ~ 1.82 days) mini-Neptune planet (mb = 9.1−1.0+1.1 M⊕, Rb = 2.765−0.097+0.088 R⊕), placing it on the lower boundary of the hot-Neptune desert (Teq,b = 941 ± 31 K). The analysis of its internal structure shows that TOI-969 b is a volatile-rich planet, suggesting it underwent an inward migration. The radial velocity model also favors the presence of a second massive body in the system, TOI-969 c, with a long period of Pc = 1700−280+290 days, a minimum mass of mc sin ic = 11.3−0.9+1.1 MJup, and a highly eccentric orbit of ec = 0.628−0.036+0.043. Conclusions. The TOI-969 planetary system is one of the few around K-dwarfs known to have this extended configuration going from a very close-in planet to a wide-separation gaseous giant. TOI-969 b has a transmission spectroscopy metric of 93 and orbits a moderately bright (G = 11.3 mag) star, making it an excellent target for atmospheric studies. The architecture of this planetary system can also provide valuable information about migration and formation of planetary systems.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Authors 2023 Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article is published in open access under the Subscribe-to-Open model. Subscribe to A&A to support open access publication.
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QB Astronomy > QB460 Astrophysics
Q Science > QB Astronomy > QB600 Planets. Planetology
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Chemical and Physical Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 19 Apr 2023 13:22
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2023 13:22

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