Kobo, O, Abramov, D, Davies, SJ, Ahmed, SB, Sun, LY, Mieres, JH, Parwani, P, Siudak, Z, Van Spall, HGC and Mamas, MA (2023) CKD-Associated Cardiovascular Mortality in the United States: Temporal Trends From 1999 to 2020. Kidney Medicine, 5 (3). 100597 - ?. ISSN 2590-0595

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RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality, but there are limited data on temporal trends disaggregated by sex, race, and urban/rural status in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging, Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database. EXPOSURE & PREDICTORS: Patients with CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) stratified according to key demographic groups. OUTCOMES: Etiologies of CKD- and ESKD-associated mortality between 1999 and 2000. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Presentation of age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 people) characterized by CV categories, ethnicity, sex (male or female), age categories, state, and urban/rural status. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2020, we identified 1,938,505 death certificates with CKD (and ESKD) as an associated cause of mortality. Of all CKD-associated mortality, the most common etiology was CV, with 31.2% of cases. Between 1999 and 2020, CKD-related age-adjusted mortality increased by 50.2%, which was attributed to an 86.6% increase in non-CV mortality but a 7.1% decrease in CV mortality. Black patients had a higher rate of CV mortality throughout the study period, although Black patients experienced a 38.6% reduction in mortality whereas White patients saw a 2.7% increase. Hispanic patients experienced a greater reduction in CV mortality over the study period (40% reduction) compared to non-Hispanic patients (3.6% reduction). CV mortality was higher in urban areas in 1999 but in rural areas in 2020. LIMITATIONS: Reliance on accurate characterization of causes of mortality in a large dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD-related mortality in the United States between 1999 and 2020, there was an increase in all-cause mortality though a small decrease in CV-related mortality. Overall, temporal decreases in CV mortality were more prominent in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic patients and Black patients versus White patients.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
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Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 02 May 2023 15:07
Last Modified: 02 May 2023 15:07
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/12353

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