Ceylan, S, Dimmock, R and Yang, Y (2023) Development of Boron-Containing PVA-Based Cryogels with Controllable Boron Releasing Rate and Altered Influence on Osteoblasts. Polymers, 15 (7). ISSN 2073-4360

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Cryogel formation is an effective approach to produce porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this study, cryogelation was performed to produce boron-containing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. A combination of the synthetic polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and the natural polymers, chitosan and starch, was used to formulate the cryogels. Boron was used with a dual purpose: as an additive to alter gelation properties, and to exploit its bioactive effect since boron has been found to be involved in several metabolic pathways, including the promotion of bone growth. This project designs a fabrication protocol enabling the competition of both physical and chemical cross-linking reactions in the cryogels using different molecular weight PVA and borax content (boron source). Using a high ratio of high-molecular-weight PVA resulted in the cryogels exhibiting greater mechanical properties, a lower degradation rate (0.6-1.7% vs. 18-20%) and a higher borax content release (4.98 vs. 1.85, 1.08 nanomole) in contrast to their counterparts with low-molecular-weight PVA. The bioactive impacts of the released borax on cellular behaviour were investigated using MG63 cells seeded into the cryogel scaffolds. It was revealed that the borax-containing scaffolds and their extracts induced MG63 cell migration and the formation of nodule-like aggregates, whilst cryogel scaffolds without borax did not. Moreover, the degradation products of the scaffolds were analysed through the quantification of boron release by the curcumin assay. The impact on cellular response in a scratch assay confirmed that borax released by the scaffold into media (~0.4 mg/mL) induced bone cell migration, proliferation and aggregation. This study demonstrated that boron-containing three-dimensional PVA/starch-chitosan scaffolds can potentially be used within bone tissue engineering applications.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 17 May 2023 12:09
Last Modified: 17 May 2023 12:09
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/12651

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