Bhattacharjee, A, McCarthy, HS, Tins, B, Roberts, S, Kuiper, JH, Harrison, PE and Richardson, JB (2016) Autologous Bone Plug Supplemented With Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation in Osteochondral Defects of the Knee. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44 (5). 1249 - 1259. ISSN 0363-5465

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BACKGROUND: Structural and functional outcome of bone graft with first- or second-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) in treating cartilage and subchondral bone defect has not been reported previously. PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of simultaneous transplantation of an autologous bone plug with first- or second-generation ACI for restoration of concomitant subchondral bone and full-thickness cartilage defect in the femoral condyle of the knee. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Seventeen patients (mean ± SD age, 27 ± 7 years; range, 17-40 years)-12 with osteochondritis dissecans (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS] grades 3 and 4) and 5 with an isolated osteochondral defect (ICRS grade 4)-had the defect reconstructed with implantation of a unicortical autologous bone graft combined with ACI (the OsPlug technique). Functional outcome was assessed with Lysholm scores obtained preoperatively and at 1 and 5 years postoperatively. The repair site was evaluated with the Oswestry Arthroscopy Score (OAS), MOCART score (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue), and ICRS II histology score. Formation of a subchondral lamina and lateral integration of the bone grafts were evaluated from magnetic resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: The mean defect size was 4.5 ± 2.6 cm(2) (range, 1-9 cm(2)), and the mean depth was 11.3 ± 5 mm (range, 5-18 mm). The preoperative Lysholm score improved from 45 (interquartile range [IQR], 24; range, 16-79) to 77 (IQR, 28; range, 41-100) at 1 year (P = .001) and 70 (IQR, 35; range, 33-91) at 5 years (P = .009). The mean OAS of the repair site was 6.2 (range, 0-9) at a mean of 1.3 years. The mean MOCART score was 61 ± 22 (range, 20-85) at 2.6 ± 1.8 years. Histology demonstrated generally good integration of the repair cartilage with the underlying bone. Poor lateral integration of the bone graft, as assessed on magnetic resonance imaging scan, and a low OAS were significantly associated with a poor Lysholm score and failure. A total of 3 patients had treatment failure, with 1 requiring total knee replacement at 5 years (Lysholm score of 33 at failure) and the other 2 requiring further surgical intervention because of persistent symptoms at 2 and 4 years, respectively (both had Lysholm score of 45 at failure). The Lysholm score in these patients before failure were still noted to be higher than at the preoperative level. CONCLUSION: The OsPlug technique shows significant improvement of functional outcome for up to 5 years in patients with high-grade osteochondritis dissecans or osteochondral defect. This is the first report describing association of bone graft integration with functional outcome after such a procedure. It also demonstrates histologic evidence of integration of the repair cartilage with the underlying bone graft.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: knee; osteochondritis dissecans; autologus chondrocyte implantation; osteochondral defects
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC925 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering
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Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2016 11:17
Last Modified: 10 Jan 2020 14:27

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