Raj, S (2016) Evolving Bodies: Mapping (Trans)Gender Identities in Refugee Law. In: The Routledge Research Companion to Geographies of Sex and Sexualities. Routledge, Abingdon, 221 - 228. ISBN 9781472455482

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What is a (trans)gender identity? How do we measure gender identity related persecution? Does refugee law offer adequate protection to culturally diverse gender minorities? Constructions gender identity as a ‘particular social group’ in international refugee jurisprudence remains elusive and unpredictable. Judicial, political and academic tensions arise about whether non-conforming gender identities should be treated as a category distinct from claims relating to (homo)sexuality in refugee decision-making. While there are a limited number of publicly available decisions, some of these tensions can be gleaned by examining the diverging legal tests relating to social perception, social visibility, and immutability when defining the particular social group. Moreover, understanding the position of transgender and other gender non-conforming refugees requires us to problematise the assumption that gender identity is reducible to ‘wrong body’ or ‘confused sexual identity’ discourse. Persecution also does not be motivated by intentional malice nor is it always just perpetrated by state actors. Highlighting some judicial and administrative decisions arising in the United States and Australia, this chapter contextualises how gender identities have been understood in refugee law and offers some critical reflections improving the juridical mapping of these complex claims.

Item Type: Book Section
Uncontrolled Keywords: Transgender, Refugee, Law, Gender Identity, Geography
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HT Communities. Classes. Races
K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences > School of Law
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2017 10:57
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2017 10:57
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/2733

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