Kareem, N, Yates, E, Skidmore, M and Hoole, D (2017) In vitro investigations on the effects of semi-synthetic, sulphated carbohydrates on the immune status of cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) leucocytes. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 74. 213 - 222. ISSN 1095-9947

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The rapid emergence of drug resistance, unfavourable immunosuppression and mounting evidence to suggest the deleterious accumulation of drug breakdown residues within animal tissues has driven a strong desire to move away from these current methods of disease control. Some natural products such as β-glucan, which are extracted from, for example, plants and fungi, are able to modulate the immune system and increase protection against diseases. However, these products are heterogeneous and their effects can be variable thus limiting their applicability and reliability. Carbohydrates were modified via chemical sulphation and these semi-synthetic, sulphated carbohydrates analysed for their immunological activity utilising carp pronephric cells and a carp leucocyte cell line (CLC). A sulphated β(1,4)-glucan, methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose sulphate (MHCS), demonstrated a stimulatory effect on fish immune cells. MHCS induced a range of bioactive effects in carp leucocyte cells whilst not affecting cell viability when cells were exposed for 24 h at concentrations of 1-150 μgml-1. MHCS stimulated the innate immune system where a significant increase in respiratory burst activity was observed at concentrations 25-250 μgml-1 in comparison to control (sterile water), cellulose ether, MacroGard® and zymosan. Also, under in mock bacterial and viral infection conditions i.e. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)), MHCS enhanced the immune responses of pronephric cells by stimulating the respiratory burst activity at concentrations 50 and 150 μgml-1. MHCS also enhanced the expression of cytokines including interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha 1 and 2 (TNFα 1,2), interferons alpha 2 (IFN α2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in carp pronephric cells. It is proposed that this new semi-synthetic carbohydrate is a potential candidate for the development of a new generation of immunostimulants and adjuvants for use in vaccination strategies in aquaculture.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: immunostimulants; beta-glucan; carbohydrates modification; immune responses; innate immunity; cytokines; cyprinus carpio
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Life Sciences
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Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 22 Jan 2018 09:58
Last Modified: 28 Dec 2018 01:30
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/4390

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