Kosolsaksakula, P, Oliver, I and Graham, MC (2018) Evaluating cadmium bioavailability in contaminated rice paddy soils and assessing potential for contaminant immobilisation with biochar. Journal of Environmental Management, 215. pp. 49-56. ISSN 1095-8630

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Cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils from the Mae Sot district in northwest Thailand, a region in which rice Cd concentrations often exceed health limits (0.4 mg/kg) set by the World Health Organisation, were examined for isotopically exchangeable Cd (Cd E values using a 111Cd spike) to determine how this rates as a predictor of rice grain Cd in comparison with soil total Cd and solution extractable Cd (using the commonly applied BCR scheme and, in an attempt to distinguish carbonate bound forms, the Tessier soil sequential extraction scheme reagents). Step 1 of the BCR scheme (0.11 M CH3COOH) and step 1 of the Tessier scheme (1M MgCl2) showed the highest R2 values in regressions with rice Cd (91% and 90%, respectively), but all predictors were strongly linked to rice Cd (p < 0.001) and could be used for prediction purposes. One soil, of the six tested, was an exception to this, where all predictors over-estimated grain Cd by a factor of 2.5–5.7, suggesting that rice grain Cd had been restricted here by the differing flooding regime and subsequent changes to redox conditions. E values and Tessier step 1 extractions were closely related, indicating that these measurements access similar pools of soil Cd. Separately, the isotopic exchangeability (representing bioavailability) of Cd was also assessed in two soils amended with rice husk and miscanthus biochars (0, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w) in order to assess the utility of the biochars as a soil amendment for immobilising Cd in situ. One soil showed significant reductions in Cd E value at 5% rice husk biochar addition and at 15% miscanthus biochar addition however, based on the E value-rice grain Cd regression relationship previously established, the E values in the amended soils still predicted for a rice Cd concentration above the health limit. In the second soil, neither of the biochars successfully reduced the Cd E value. This indicates that further work is needed to customise biochar properties to suit specific soil and contaminant situations if they are to be used successfully for remediation of metal contaminated soils.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted author manuscript (AAM). The final published version (version of record) is available online via Elsevier at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.03.044 - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cadmium: soil: Contamination: Remediation: Biochar: Rice
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General)
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2018 10:36
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2021 13:30
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/4632

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