Rainsley, E and Fogwill, CJ (2019) Pleistocene glacial history of the New Zealand subantarctic islands. Climate of the Past, 15 (2). pp. 423-448. ISSN 1814-9324

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The New Zealand subantarctic islands of Auckland and Campbell, situated between the Subtropical Front and the Antarctic Convergence in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, provide valuable terrestrial records from a globally-important climatic region. Whilst the islands show clear evidence of past glaciation, the timing and mechanisms behind Pleistocene environmental and climate changes remain uncertain. Here we present a multidisciplinary study of the islands – including marine and terrestrial geomorphological surveys, extensive analyses of sedimentary sequences, a comprehensive dating program, and glacier flowline modelling – to investigate multiple phases of glaciation across the islands. We find evidence that the Auckland Islands hosted a small ice cap at 384,000 ± 26,000 years ago (384±26 ka), most likely during Marine Isotope Stage 10, a period when the Subtropical Front was pushed northwards by seven degrees, and consistent with hemispheric-wide glacial expansion. Despite previous interpretations that suggest the maximum glacial extent occurred in the form of valley glaciation at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 ka) age, our combined approach suggests minimal LGM glaciation across the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands, and that no glaciers were present during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR; ~15-13 ka). Instead, our flowline modelling, constrained by field evidence, implies that despite a regional mean annual air temperature depression of ~5°C during the LGM, a combination of high seasonality and low precipitation left the islands incapable of sustaining significant glaciation. We suggest that northwards expansion of winter sea ice during the LGM and subsequent ACR led to precipitation starvation across the mid to high latitudes of the Southern Ocean, resulting in restricted glaciation of the subantarctic islands.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via Copernicus Publications at https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-423-2019 - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GB Physical geography
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 29 May 2018 14:56
Last Modified: 29 Mar 2019 11:06
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/4958

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