Williams, HL and Lindsay, DS (2019) Different Definitions of the Non-recollection-based Response Option(s) Change how People use the “Remember” Response in the Remember/Know Paradigm. Memory and Cognition, 47 (7). pp. 1359-1374. ISSN 0090-502X

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In the Remember/Know paradigm, a Know response can be defined to participants as a high-confidence state of certainty or as a low-confidence state based on a feeling of familiarity. To examine the effects of definition on use of responses, in two experiments definitions of Remember and Guess were kept constant but definitions of Know and/or Familiar were systematically varied to emphasize (a) a subjective experience of high-confidence-without-recollection, (b) a feeling of familiarity, (c) both of these subjective experiences combined within one response option, or (d) both of these experiences as separate response options. The confidence expressed in Know and/or Familiar definitions affected how participants used response options. Importantly this included use of the Remember response, which tended to be used more frequently when the non-recollection-based middle response option emphasized a feeling of familiarity rather than an experience of “just knowing.” The influence of the definitions on response patterns was greater for items that had undergone deep rather than shallow processing, and was greater when deep- and shallow-encoded items were mixed, rather than blocked, at test. Our findings fit with previous research suggesting that the mnemonic traces underlying subjective judgments are continuous and that the Remember/Know paradigm is not a pure measure of underlying processes. Findings also emphasize the importance of researchers publishing the exact definitions they have used to enable accurate comparisons across studies.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted author manuscript (AAM). The final published version (version of record) is available online via Springer at https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-019-00938-0 - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Remember-Know, subjective experience, recollection, familiarity, dual-process
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2019 09:22
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2019 14:33
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/6203

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