Akpodiete, NO, Diabate, A and Tripet, F (2019) Effect of water source and feed regime on development and phenotypic quality in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.): prospects for improved mass-rearing techniques towards release programmes. Parasites and Vectors, 12 (210). ISSN 1756-3305

[thumbnail of F Tripet - Effect of water source and feed regime on development and phenotypic quality in Anopheles gambiae.pdf]
F Tripet - Effect of water source and feed regime on development and phenotypic quality in Anopheles gambiae.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


In many malaria-endemic sub-Saharan countries, insecticide resistance poses a threat to existing mosquito control measures, underscoring the need for complementary control methods such as sterile and/or genetically-modified mosquito release programmes. The sibling species Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii are responsible for malaria transmission in most of this region. In their natural habitat, these species generally breed in clean, soft water and it is believed that divergent preference in their larval breeding sites have played a role in their speciation process. Mosquito release programmes rely on the rearing of mosquitoes at high larval densities. Current rearing protocols often make use of deionised water regardless of the strain reared. They also depend on a delicate balance between the need for adequate feeding and the negative effect of toxic ammonia and food waste build-up on mosquito development, making managing and improving water quality in the insectary imperative.

Here, we investigated the impact of water source and feed regimes on emergence rate and phenotypic quality of mosquitoes in the insectary. First-instar larvae of An. gambiae (Kisumu strain) and An. coluzzii (Mopti and VK3 strains) were reared in three water sources with varying degrees of hardness (deionised, mineral and a mix of the two), with a daily water change. Larvae were fed daily using two standardised feeding regimes, solution and powder feed.

Water source had a significant impact on mosquito size and development time for all strains. Earlier emergence of significantly larger mosquitoes was observed in mineral water with the smallest mosquitoes developing later from deionised water. Wing-length was significantly longer in mineral, mixed water and in powder feed, irrespective of sex, strains or water types. Deionised water was the least favourable for mosquito quality across all strains.

Mineral water and powder feed should be used in rearing protocols to improve mosquito quality where the optimal quality of mosquitoes is desired. Although results obtained were not significant for improved mosquito numbers, the phenotypic quality of mosquitoes reared was significantly improved in mineral water and mix water. Further studies are recommended on the impact mineral water has on other fitness traits such as longevity, fecundity and mating competitiveness.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via BioMed Central at https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3465-0 - Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Water hardness, Feed, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles gambiae, Mass rearing, Insectary, Kisumu, Mopti VK3
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 13 May 2019 14:44
Last Modified: 28 May 2019 11:32
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/6322

Actions (login required)

View Item
View Item