Evans, PL, Prior, JA, Belcher, J, Hay, CA, Mallen, CD and Roddy, E (2019) Gender-specific risk factors for gout: a systematic review of cohort studies. Advances in Rheumatology, 59 (1). 24 - ?.

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Though gout is more prevalent in men than women, it remains unclear whether gender influences risk factors for incident gout. We aimed to systematically review all cohort studies examining risk factors for the development of gout by gender.

MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 2019. Risk factors for gout examined were: age, ethnicity, consumption of alcohol, meat, seafood, dairy products, purine-rich vegetables, coffee and fructose, vitamin C intake, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, metabolic syndrome, BMI, waist and chest circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, weight change, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemias, renal disease, psoriasis, hypertension, diuretic use and anti-diabetic medication. Cohort studies were included if examining (at least) one of these risk factors for gout in either gender in the general population or primary care. Sample characteristics from included articles and their reported risk estimates were described using narrative synthesis.

Thirty-three articles were included, 20 (60.6%)directly compared risk factors by gender, 10 (30.3%) used men-only samples, 3 (9.1%) used women-only samples. Articles comparing risk across genders found similar increases in most risk factors. However, in men, metabolic syndrome (Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 1.37(1.20-1.58)) presented a risk of incident gout compared to none in women (> 50 years 1.15(0.85-1.54); ≤50 years 1.29(0.76-2.17)). Compared to men, women showed greater associated risk with higher consumption of fish and shellfish (HR (95% CI) Men: 1.02 (0.86-1.22); Women 1.36 (1.12-1.65)).

Risk factors for developing gout did not typically differ between genders and therefore similar preventative advice can be provided. Exceptions were metabolic syndrome in men and excessive seafood consumption in women, but these singular articles need further examination and in general more research into the risk factors for gout which includes women is required.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via BioMed Central at https://doi.org/10.1186/s42358-019-0067-7 - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Gender, Gout, Risk factors, Systematic review
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC925 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Primary Care Health Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 04 Jul 2019 13:13
Last Modified: 16 Jul 2019 11:44
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/6559

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