Turner, T, Wheeler, R, Stone, A and Oliver, I (2019) Potential Alternative Reuse Pathways for Water Treatment Residuals: Remaining Barriers and Questions—a Review. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 230 (9). 227 -227. ISSN 1573-2932

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Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are by-products of the coagulation and flocculation phase of the drinking water treatment process that is employed in the vast majority of water treatment plants globally. Production of WTRs are liable to increase as clean drinking water becomes a standard resource. One of the largest disposal routes of these WTRs was via landfill, and the related disposal costs are a key driver behind the operational cost of the water treatment process. WTRs have many physical and chemical properties that lend them to potential positive reuse routes. Therefore, a large quantity of literature has been published on alternative reuse strategies. Existing or suggested alternative disposal routes for WTRs can be considered to fall within several categories: use as a pollutant and excess nutrient absorbent in soils and waters, bulk land application to agricultural soils, use in construction materials, and reuse through elemental recovery or as a wastewater coagulant. The main concerns and limitations restricting current and future beneficial uses of WTRs are discussed within. This includes those limitations linked to issues that have received much research attention such as perceived risks of undesirable phosphorous immobilisation and aluminium toxicity in soils, as well as areas that have received little coverage such as implications for terrestrial ecosystems following land application of WTRs.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via Springer at https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4272-0 - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Water treatment residuals, Reuse, Sorption, Alum sludge, Land spreading
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 19 Sep 2019 13:25
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2021 11:41
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/6854

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