Singh, A, Schofield, CJ and Chen, R (2020) Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors induce autophagy and have a protective effect in an in-vitro ischaemia model. Scientific Reports, 10 (1). ISSN 2045-2322

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This study compared effects of five hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHD) inhibitors on PC12 cells and primary rat neurons following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). At 100 µM, the PHD inhibitors did not cause cytotoxicity and apoptosis. MTT activity was only significantly reduced by FG4592 or Bayer 85-3934 in PC12 cells. The PHD inhibitors at 100 µM significantly increased the LC3-II/LC3-I expression ratio and downregulated p62 in PC12 cells, so did FG4592 (30 µM) and DMOG (100 µM) in neurons. HIF-1α was stabilised in PC12 cells by all the PHD inhibitors at 100 µM except for DMOG, which stabilised HIF-1α at 1 and 2 mM. In primary neurons, HIF-1α was stabilised by FG4592 (30 µM) and DMOG (100 µM). Pretreatment with the PHD inhibitors 24 hours followed by 24 hour reoxygenation prior to 6 hours OGD (0.3% O2) significantly reduced LDH release and increased MTT activity compared to vehicle (1% DMSO) pretreatment. In conclusion, the PHD inhibitors stabilise HIF-1α in normoxia, induce autophagy, and protect cells from a subsequent OGD insult. The new class of PHD inhibitors (FG4592, FG2216, GSK1278863, Bay85-3934) have the higher potency than DMOG. The interplay between autophagy, HIF stabilisation and neuroprotection in ischaemic stroke merits further investigation.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords: hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), HIF prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors, stroke,Cellular neuroscience Molecular neuroscience, Neurochemistry, oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), neuroprotection, autophagy
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2019 09:13
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2020 14:14

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