Hall, AB, Papathanos, P-A, Sharma, A, Cheng, C, Akbari, OS, Assour, L, Bergman, NH, Cagnetti, A, Crisanti, A, Dottorini, T, Fiorentini, E, Galizi, R, Hnath, J, Jiang, X, Koren, S, Nolan, T, Radune, D, Sharakhova, MV, Steele, A, Timoshevskiy, VA, Windbichler, N, Zhang, S, Hahn, MW, Phillippy, AM, Emrich, SJ, Sharakhov, IV, Tu, ZJ and Besansky, NJ (2016) Radical remodeling of the Y chromosome in a recent radiation of malaria mosquitoes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 113 (15). E2114 - E2123. ISSN 1091-6490

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Y chromosomes control essential male functions in many species, including sex determination and fertility. However, because of obstacles posed by repeat-rich heterochromatin, knowledge of Y chromosome sequences is limited to a handful of model organisms, constraining our understanding of Y biology across the tree of life. Here, we leverage long single-molecule sequencing to determine the content and structure of the nonrecombining Y chromosome of the primary African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae We find that the An. gambiae Y consists almost entirely of a few massively amplified, tandemly arrayed repeats, some of which can recombine with similar repeats on the X chromosome. Sex-specific genome resequencing in a recent species radiation, the An. gambiae complex, revealed rapid sequence turnover within An. gambiae and among species. Exploiting 52 sex-specific An. gambiae RNA-Seq datasets representing all developmental stages, we identified a small repertoire of Y-linked genes that lack X gametologs and are not Y-linked in any other species except An. gambiae, with the notable exception of YG2, a candidate male-determining gene. YG2 is the only gene conserved and exclusive to the Y in all species examined, yet sequence similarity to YG2 is not detectable in the genome of a more distant mosquito relative, suggesting rapid evolution of Y chromosome genes in this highly dynamic genus of malaria vectors. The extensive characterization of the An. gambiae Y provides a long-awaited foundation for studying male mosquito biology, and will inform novel mosquito control strategies based on the manipulation of Y chromosomes.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright & Usage: Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Y Chromosome, Malaria, Mosquitoes
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2020 10:02
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2020 10:02
URI: https://eprints.keele.ac.uk/id/eprint/7506

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