Belczynski, K, Hirschi, R, Kaiser, EA, Liu, J, Casares, J, Lu, Y, O’Shaughnessy, R, Heger, A, Justham, S and Soria, R (2020) The Formation of a 70 M ⊙ Black Hole at High Metallicity. The Astrophysical Journal, 890 (2). 113 -113. ISSN 1538-4357

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A 70 black hole (BH) was discovered in the Milky Way disk in a long-period detached binary system (LB-1) with a high-metallicity 8 B star companion. Current consensus on the formation of BHs from high-metallicity stars limits the BH mass to be below 20 due to strong mass loss in stellar winds. Using analytic evolutionary formulae, we show that the formation of a 70 BH in a high-metallicity environment is possible if wind mass-loss rates are reduced by factor of five. As observations indicate, a fraction of massive stars have surface magnetic fields that may quench the wind mass-loss, independently of stellar mass and metallicity. We confirm such a scenario with detailed stellar evolution models. A nonrotating 85 star model at Z = 0.014 with decreased winds ends up as a 71 star prior to core collapse with a 32 He core and a 28 CO core. Such a star avoids the pair-instability pulsation supernova mass loss that severely limits BH mass and may form a ∼70 BH in the direct collapse. Stars that can form 70 BHs at high Z expand to significant sizes, with radii of R ≳ 600 , however, exceeding the size of the LB-1 orbit. Therefore, we can explain the formation of BHs up to 70 at high metallicity and this result is valid whether or not LB-1 hosts a massive BH. However, if LB-1 hosts a massive BH we are unable to explain how such a binary star system could have formed without invoking some exotic scenarios.}

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version (version of record). It was first published online via IOP Publishing at - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.
Uncontrolled Keywords: black hole physics, classical black holes, binary stars
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy > QB460 Astrophysics
Q Science > QB Astronomy > QB799 Stars
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Chemical and Physical Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 16 Apr 2020 14:45
Last Modified: 17 Apr 2020 09:18

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