Bonomini, M, Zammit, V, Divino-Filho, JC, Davies, SJ, Di Liberato, L, Arduini, A and Lambie, M (2020) The osmo-metabolic approach: a novel and tantalizing glucose-sparing strategy in peritoneal dialysis. Journal of Nephrology. ISSN 1724-6059

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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a viable but under-prescribed treatment for uremic patients. Concerns about its use include the bio-incompatibility of PD fluids, due to their potential for altering the functional and anatomical integrity of the peritoneal membrane. Many of these effects are thought to be due to the high glucose content of these solutions, with attendant issues of products generated during heat treatment of glucose-containing solutions. Moreover, excessive intraperitoneal absorption of glucose from the dialysate has many potential systemic metabolic effects. This article reviews the efforts to develop alternative PD solutions that obviate some of these side effects, through the replacement of part of their glucose content with other osmolytes which are at least as efficient in removing fluids as glucose, but less impactful on patient metabolism. In particular, we will summarize clinical studies on the use of alternative osmotic ingredients that are commercially available (icodextrin and amino acids) and preclinical studies on alternative solutions under development (taurine, polyglycerol, carnitine and xylitol). In addition to the expected benefit of a glucose-sparing approach, we describe an 'osmo-metabolic' approach in formulating novel PD solutions, in which there is the possibility of exploiting the pharmaco-metabolic properties of some of the osmolytes to attenuate the systemic side effects due to glucose. This approach has the potential to ameliorate pre-existing co-morbidities, including insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, which have a high prevalence in the dialysis population, including in PD patients.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords: Peritoneal dialysis, Glucose-sparing, Solution, Carnitine, Xylitol
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC902 Nephrology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Primary, Community and Social Care
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2020 12:08
Last Modified: 01 Sep 2020 10:14

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