Cooper, Daniel (2021) The physiological and ergogenic effects of exercise training with low carbohydrate availability: a review. The Student Journal of Natural Sciences. ISSN 2632-2803

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Due to the importance of glycogen for energy production, research has traditionally recommended sufficient carbohydrate (CHO) availability to maximise exerciseperformance. However, recent evidence has suggested that undertaking some training sessions with low CHO availability may bring about greater physiological adaptations. This strategy has commonly been termed as 'train low'. Although desirable adaptations in gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis and the activity of enzymes related to aerobic metabolism have been observed, research is conflicted towards the ergogenic impact this technique has on exercise performance. Additionally, this strategy may produce maladaptations such as reduced training intensity, immunosuppression, protein oxidation and reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Therefore, if athletes are to adopt this strategy, it is suggested that they periodise 'train low' to solely low-intensity sessions which won't be impaired by a drop in work rate, but otherwise maintaining sufficient daily CHO intake. Also, athletes could negate potential maladaptations by using caffeine and/or CHO mouth rinse to maintain exercise intensity, and increasing protein ingestion to counteract increased protein oxidation. Future research should directly compare the effect of 'train low' between use in all sessions and solely low-intensity sessions within one comprehensive study to better understand the mechanisms behind the apparent superiority of the latter strategy.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the final published version (version of record). It was first published online via Keele Universisty at - please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher. Deposited by arrangement and permission of the editor, Dr Steven Rogers, Keele University School of Geography, Geology and the Environment. Daniel Cooper, is affililited with School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK.
Uncontrolled Keywords: glycogen, sports nutrition, exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Natural Sciences > School of Geography, Geology and the Environment
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 30 Mar 2021 10:37
Last Modified: 11 Mar 2022 10:21

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