Protheroe, J, Bray, L, Blake, L, Nafria, B, Garcia de Avila, M, Ångström-Brännströme, C, Forsner, M, Campbell, S, Ford, K, Rullander, A-C, Robichaud, F, Jenholt Nolbris, M, Saron, H, Kirton, J and Carter, B (2021) Children’s pictures of COVID-19 and measures to mitigate its spread: an international qualitative study. Health Education Journal, 80 (7). pp. 811-832. ISSN 0017-8969

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Objectives: To gain insight into children’s health-related knowledge and understanding of SARS-CoV2 and measures adopted to mitigate transmission.
Design: A child-centred qualitative creative element, embedded in an online mixed method survey of children aged 7-12 years.
Setting: Children participated in the study in six countries - the UK, Australia, Sweden, Brazil, Spain and Canada.
Method: A qualitative creative component, embedded in an online survey, prompted children to draw and label a picture. Children were recruited via their parents using the researchers’ professional social media accounts, through known contacts, media and websites from health organisations within each country. Analysis of the form and content of the children’s pictures took place.
Results: 128 children (mean age 9.2 years) submitted either a hand-drawn (n=111) or digitally created (n=17) picture. Four main themes identified related to children’s health-related knowledge of (1) COVID-19 and how it is transmitted; (2) measures and actions to mitigate transmission; (3) places of safety during the pandemic; and (4) children’s role in mitigating COVID-19 transmission.
Conclusion: Children’s pictures indicated a good understanding of the virus, how it spreads and how to mitigate transmission. Children depicted their actions during the pandemic as protecting themselves, their families and wider society.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
Uncontrolled Keywords: Children; COVID-19; health-related knowledge; pandemic; pictures
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
H Social Sciences > HA Statistics
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Primary, Community and Social Care
Depositing User: Symplectic
Date Deposited: 06 May 2021 12:07
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2021 13:22

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